UPSC Preparation Notes – National action plan on climate change (NAPCC)
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Best UPSC Preparation Notes – NAPCC
The government of India has launched eight Missions as part of the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) in specific areas which include assessment of the impact of climate change and actions needed to address climate change.
1) National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency:
Initiatives based on increasing the energy use efficiency were expected to yield savings of 10,000 MW by 2012.
Following are the 4 initiatives of the Mission
- Performa Achieve and Trade (PAT) – Improving Efficiency in Energy Intensive Sectors.
- Energy Efficiency Financing Platform (EEFP) – Providing platform for capacity enhancement of stakeholders related to EE Financing.
- Market Transformation for Energy Efficiency (MTEE) – accelerating shift towards energy efficient appliances
- Framework for Energy Efficient Economic Development (FEEED) – Development of fiscal instruments to promote energy efficiency
2) National Solar Mission:
The NAPCC aims to promote the development and use of solar energy for power generation and other uses with the ultimate objective of making solar competitive with fossil-based energy options.
The National Solar Mission Targets are as per the following -:
- To create an enabling policy framework for the deployment of 20,000 MW of solar power by 2022.
- To create favorable conditions for solar manufacturing capability, particularly solar thermal for indigenous production and market leadership.
- To promote programmes for off-grid applications, reaching 1000 MW by 2017 and 2000 MW by 2022
- To achieve 15 million sq. meters solar thermal collector area by 2017 and 20 million by 2022.
- To deploy 20 million solar lighting systems for rural areas by 2022.
3) Green India Mission (GIM)
The Objectives of the Mission are as per below –
- Increased forest/tree cover on 5 m ha of forest/non-forest lands and improved quality of forest cover on another 5 m ha (a total of 10 m ha).
- Improved ecosystem services including biodiversity, hydrological services and carbon sequestration as a result of treatment of 10 m ha.
- Increased forest-based livelihood income of about 3 million households living in and around the forests.
- Enhanced annual CO2 sequestration by 50 to 60 million tonnes in the year 2020.
4) National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem
The plan aims to conserve biodiversity, forest cover, and other ecological values in the Himalayan region, where glaciers that are a significant source of India’s water supply are projected to recede as a result of global warming.
5) National Mission on Sustainable Habitat:
To promote energy efficiency as a core component of urban planning, the plan calls for:
- Extending the existing Energy Conservation Building Code;
- A greater emphasis on urban waste management and recycling, including power production from waste;
- Strengthening the enforcement of automotive fuel economy standards and using pricing measures to encourage the purchase of efficient vehicles; and
- Incentives for the use of public transportation.
6) National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
The plan aims to support climate adaptation in agriculture through the development of climate-resilient crops, expansion of weather insurance mechanisms, and agricultural practices.
7) National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change
To gain a better understanding of climate science, impacts and challenges, the plan envisions a new Climate Science Research Fund, improved climate modeling, and increased international collaboration.
Some of the aims of the Mission are listed below –
- Establishment of Networks of Existing Institutions
- Strengthening and Building Strategic (Human and institutional) knowledge capacities
- S&T Innovations for climate change responses for adaptation and mitigation of climate change
- Quantum increase in climate science research
8) National Water Mission
With water scarcity projected to worsen as a result of climate change, the plan sets a goal of a 20% improvement in water use efficiency through pricing and other measures.
The Key areas of this Mission are given below –
- studies on management of surface water resources,
- management and regulation of groundwater resources,
- upgrading storage structures for fresh and drainage system for wastewater,
- conservation of wetland, and
- development of desalination technologies etc. required to be considered while preparing the comprehensive document for the National Water Mission.